How many active stem cell trials are there taking place?
So there are different types of stem cell trials, so we need to break it down into at least two main types. One is so-called hematopoietic stem cell. It is a treatment that is in combination with chemotherapy, so it is not only a stem cell therapy, and the process is called autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There are two ongoing trials of this kind, both in the United States. One is a randomised trial, comparing this type of therapy with standard therapy. It’s called MIST trial, led by Richard Burt at Northwestern University. The other one is called HALT-MS and it is a non-controlled study using a slightly different protocol in people with highly active forms of MS, conducted by Dr Richard Nash and several centres in the US. So these are two doing hematopoietic.
Then we have one large international trial doing mesenchymal stem cell therapy, another bone marrow derived type of stem cell, but it works in a different way, for which no immune suppression is given. This trial has a number of centres, we’re up to ten centres, I believe, including Italy, the UK, Denmark and several other centres across Europe, plus Canada.